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SOCIAL    AND    POLITICAL    LIFE           175

snow in front of his door, and not bother about the frost on his
neighbour's roof." This is not so bad. What is worse is that it
makes a man throw his refuse outside his neighbour's door*

The best illustration is the so-called Chinese courtesy, a
very misunderstood topic. Chinese courtesy cannot be defined,
as Emerson has defined it, as "the happy way of doing things/*
So much depends on who it is you are doing things with. Is
he of your family or a friend of your family? The Chinese have
just as much good manners toward people outside their families
and friends as the Englishmen in the colonies have toward
people outside their race. One Englishman told me that "the
good thing is that we are not proud toward ourselves." This
seems quite sufficient for the Englishmen, since "ourselves"
make the universe. The Chinese are not bad-mannered toward
their friends and acquaintances, but beyond that limit the
Chinese as a social being is positively hostile toward his neigh-
bour, be he a fellow-passenger in a street car or a neighbour
at the theatre-ticket office.

I have seen on a rainy day at a bus station in the inland a
fellow-passenger who, in the mad scramble for seats, found
himself occupying the driver's seat, and who steadfastly re-
fused to give it up against the entreaty of the station officials. A
bit of "social consciousness" might have told him that without
the driver no one in the bus could get home, but this spark of
social consciousness was lacking. If one analyses still further,
was he to blame? Why was there only one bus for about eighty
passengers? The local militarist had commandeered the others
for transportation purposes. Where, then, was the social con-
sciousness of the militarist? Where system fails, and where men
are forced into a mad scramble, all stranded on the road thirty
miles away from home on a rainy day and all anxious to get
home, what was the occupant of the driver's seat to expect if
he gave it up? The case is therefore typical: it shows the mal-
adjustment between the natural rural courtesy of the farmers
and the age of speed, the political chaos which hastens in-
dividual scramble, and the lack of a tradition, based on a new
social consciousness, which must take time to grow up.

This lack of social consciousness explains why all bus
companies are losing money and why all mining companies